A2z Albania

Albania is a southeastern European country located on the Balkan Peninsula. It is bordered by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, North Macedonia to the east, and Greece to the south. The Adriatic Sea lies to the west and the Ionian Sea to the southwest, providing Albania with a significant coastline.



Albania features a Mediterranean climate along its coast, with hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. Inland, the climate varies more considerably with elevation, transitioning to a continental climate with colder winters and hotter summers.


Albania boasts a rich diversity of fauna, influenced by its varied geography and climates. This includes a range of mammals such as wolves, brown bears, and lynxes, as well as numerous bird species, making it a notable area for ornithologists.

Longest Rivers

  • Vjosa River: One of Europe’s last wild rivers, running uninterrupted by dams or significant human intervention.
  • Drin River: The longest river within Albanian borders, significant for its hydroelectric potential.

Highest Mountains

  • Mount Korab: At 2,764 meters, it is the highest point in Albania and shared with North Macedonia.
  • Mount Jezerca: Standing at 2,694 meters, it is part of the Albanian Alps and one of the most imposing peaks in the country.


Prehistory to Roman Era

Albania’s history begins with various Illyrian tribes, known for their fierce resistance against Rome. The region was eventually integrated into the Roman Empire, laying the groundwork for its rich archaeological legacy.

Byzantine to Ottoman Period

After the fall of Rome, Albania came under Byzantine control, followed by periods of Bulgarian and Serbian rule. The Ottoman conquest in the 15th century introduced significant cultural and demographic changes, with the introduction of Islam.

Independence to Modern Age

Albania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912. The 20th century was marked by periods of monarchy, Italian and German occupation during World War II, a strict Stalinist regime under Enver Hoxha, and eventual transition to democracy in the 1990s.


Albania is a nation with a relatively homogeneous population, predominantly ethnic Albanians. There are small communities of Greeks, Macedonians, Montenegrins, and others. The Albanian diaspora is significant, with large communities in Italy, Greece, and the United States.

Administrative Divisions

Albania is divided into 12 counties, each containing several municipalities. Here are a few:

  • Tirana County: Population approximately 800,000.
  • Durrës County: Population around 290,000.
  • Fier County: Population about 310,000. Each county is important culturally and economically, reflecting a diverse regional character.

Largest Cities by Population

  • Tirana: 418,495
  • Durrës: 113,249
  • Vlorë: 79,513
  • Elbasan: 77,075
  • Shkodër: 77,075
  • Fier: 55,845
  • Korçë: 51,152
  • Berat: 32,606
  • Lushnjë: 31,105
  • Kavajë: 29,354

Education Systems


Education in Albania is compulsory and free up to the secondary level. The country has been reforming its educational system to improve quality and access, including higher education.

Top Universities

  • University of Tirana
  • Polytechnic University of Tirana
  • University of Arts



Albania’s main international airport is Tirana International Airport Nënë Tereza. There are smaller airports in Kukës and Vlorë mainly for domestic flights.


The Albanian railway network has been historically underdeveloped, with around 339 kilometers of track, primarily serving to connect major cities like Tirana and Durrës.


The total length of highways in Albania is approximately 3,945 kilometers, with recent investments significantly improving road infrastructure.

Major Ports

  • Port of Durrës: The largest and most important port, handling the majority of maritime cargo.
  • Port of Vlorë: Important for oil and gas exports.
  • Port of Sarandë: Mainly serves cruise ships and tourism.

Country Facts

  • Population: 2.8 million
  • Capital: Tirana
  • Languages: Albanian (official)
  • Major Religion: Islam, with significant Christian minorities
  • Ethnic Groups: Predominantly Albanian
  • Currency: Albanian lek (ALL)
  • ISO Country Codes: AL, ALB, 008
  • International Calling Code: +355
  • Top-Level Domain: .al