Germany Politics and Law

National symbols

The national flag and the trade flag are black, red and gold striped lengthways, as is the federal service flag, in the middle of which is the federal coat of arms. The service flag and jack of the German Navy is the federal service flag, cut out at right angles at the flying end. The standard of the Federal President is square and shows the federal eagle in a red-edged golden background. The civil flags are largely similar to those of the German Empire (German colors).

The coat of arms is a heraldic right-facing, red armored black eagle on a golden background (federal eagle).

Since 1990, October 3rd has been a reminder of the restoration of German unity (Day of German Unity). The national anthem is the 3rd stanza of the Deutschlandlied.


As part of the parliamentary system, v. a. seven parties stand out: Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU; in the Bundestag linked with the CDU in a parliamentary group), Social Democratic Party of Germany(SPD), Free Democratic Party (FDP), Alliance 90 / The Greens, Die Linke (December 1989 to May 2007 Party of Democratic Socialism [PDS] or Left Party) and the Alternative for Germany (AfD).


The most important umbrella organization of the trade unions is the DGB (German Trade Union Confederation). There are also the Christian Trade Union Federation of Germany (CGB, Christian trade unions) and the dbb (civil servants’ associations).


The armed forces are officially called Bundeswehr.


As a country located in west Europe according to Countryaah, Germany is one of the most highly developed industrial countries (G 20) and one of the strongest exporters in the world. In terms of gross domestic product (GDP), it ranks fourth behind the USA, China and Japan in an international comparison.

Foreign policy protection

After the opening of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, the “four powers” also took a stand on the events. US President George Bush made it clear at an early stage that the Germans in West and East would have to decide for themselves about their unity, but a united Germany would have to belong to NATO and the European Community (EC). He did not join the French, British and Soviet reservations about German reunification. The USSR initially insisted on the neutrality of a united Germany, while Poland insisted on formal recognition of its western border.

On February 14, 1990, the Foreign Ministers of the Federal Republic of Germany and the GDR as well as the USA, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union agreed conferences based on the formula “two-plus-four” to discuss the external aspects of German reunification, including questions of security policy. Poland was not included, but there was agreement among the participants in the “two-plus-four” negotiations that the Polish western border should be recognized in a legally binding form. The decisive breakthrough in the question of whether a united Germany would belong to an alliance was achieved at a summit meeting between the USA and the USSR (May 31 – June 2, 1990): After unification, Germany was to receive full sovereignty and the right to freely decide whether to belong to the alliance. On 9/12 Two-plus-four contract). With this treaty, the Allies ended all of their special rights that arose from the occupation after 1945; Germany became completely sovereign. The post-war period finally came to an end.

Since the construction of the Berlin Wall, there has been a target ambivalence between German unity and European unification; both political tasks seemed to run counter to one another. The international safeguarding of German unity in 1990 ended this conflict of goals. Chancellor Kohl and French President François Mitterrand agreed on the main features of further European integration that firmly anchored larger Germany in the community. With German reunification, the five new federal states and Berlin (East) joined the EEC. At the same time, in an amendment to the Basic Law, the former Article 23, which regulated the connection of new federal states to the Federal Republic of Germany, was repealed. Its new version regulated relations with the European Union and established the Federal Republic’s openness to integration in Europe. The united Germany gave up sovereignty rights to the European level.

German War of 1866

German War of 1866, the dispute between Prussia under O. von Bismarck and Austria over the German question.

The occupation of Holstein by Prussian troops, contrary to the Gastein Convention of August 14, 1865, was followed by the break with Austria, whose application for mobilization of the federal army with the exclusion of Prussia was accepted by the majority of the Bundestag on June 14, 1866 and viewed by Prussia as a declaration of war. Austria was allied with Saxony, Bavaria, Württemberg, Baden, Hanover, Hessen-Darmstadt, Kurhessen, Nassau, Sachsen-Meiningen, Liechtenstein, Reuss older line and the Free City of Frankfurt am Main, Prussia with most of the north German small and medium-sized states and with Italy (Alliance of 8 April).

The main Prussian power with H. Graf von Moltke as chief of staff moved into Bohemia with three armies, threw back the Austrian Northern Army under L. von Benedek in several skirmishes and was able to succeed on 3.7. win the decisive victory at Königgrätz. In contrast, the Austrians won over the Italians at Custoza (June 24th) and with their fleet at Lissa (July 20th). In the meantime Hanover, Electorate Hesse and Saxony had been occupied by Prussian troops and the Hanoverian army had been forced to surrender at Langensalza (June 29).

To an intervention of Napoleon III. To forestall, Bismarck decided to an immediate armistice: on July 26th. was the preliminary peace of Nikolsburg, on August 23. the peace of Prague concluded. The peace treaties with the southern German states were made between August 13th. and 3.9. concluded in Berlin, the Austro-Italian peace on October 3rd. in Vienna. Prussia annexed Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, Kurhessen, Nassau and the city of Frankfurt am Main, Austria ceded Veneto to Italy.

The outcome of the war led to the founding of the North German Confederation and to the reorganization of Germany without Austria.

Germany Politics and Law

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