The flag of Qatar is made of chocolate brown cloth with a wide white stripe on the leech; the two colors are separated from each other in a zigzag line with nine white triangles. The brown color is based on a red natural dye that turns brown when exposed to the sun.
- Official name: State of Qatar
- License plate: Q
- ISO-3166: QA, QAT (634)
- Internet domain:.qa
- Currency: 1 Qatari riyal (QR) = 100 dirhams
- Area: 11,610 km²
- Population (2018): 2.8 million
- Capital: Doha
- Official language (s): Arabic
- Form of government: Constitutional monarchy (emirate)
- Administrative division: 7 municipalities
- Head of State: Emir Tamim bin Hamad bin Chalifa Al Thani
- Religion (s) (2010): 68% Muslim; 14% Christians, 14% Hindus, 4% other / n / a
- Time zone: Central European Time +2 hours
- National holiday: December 18th
As the only country beginning with letter Q defined by Countryaah, Qatar stood in the 9th / 10th Century under the rule of Bahrain; Since around 1750 Bedouin tribes under the clans of Al Chalifa (capital: Subara) and Al Thani (capital: Duat al-Beida) ruled Qatar and Kuwait. In 1766 the Utub of Kuwait founded a sheikdom on the Qatar peninsula, destroyed by Oman in 1810/11 and then under the sovereignty of Bahrain. Recognized as an independent sheikdom in 1868, it came under Ottoman rule (1872–1913). Sheikh Abdullah (* 1880, † 1957; 1913–49) concluded a protectorate treaty with Great Britain on November 3, 1916, which forbade the ruler to have relations with other states without British permission. The first crude oil discoveries (1939) were followed by oil exports (from 1949) and an economic upswing to one of the most prosperous countries in the world. In the course of the abandonment of the British bases “east of Suez” in January 1968, Qatar declared its independence on September 3, 1971; the (since 1960) ruling Sheikh Ahmed Ibn Ali (* 1920, † 1977) accepted the title of Emir. Qatar became a member of the UN and the Arab League.
On February 22, 1972 (bloodless coup), the previous Prime Minister Sheikh Chalifa Ibn Hamad Al Thani (* 1932) took over the power and the title of monarch from his cousin; In 1974 the oil production companies operating in the country were nationalized. Under the influence of the fundamentalist Islamic revolution in Iran (1979), Qatar participated in the establishment of the Gulf Council (GCC) in 1981. During the 2nd Gulf War (January / February 1991) Qatar was a stationing base for aircraft of the anti-Iraqi front under the leadership of the USA.
On June 27, 1995, Crown Prince Hamad Ibn Chalifa Al Thani (* 1952) declared his father, who was abroad, deposed and headed the state. Hamad initiated cautious democratization (including local elections) and sought an independent foreign policy. The conflict with Bahrain over the Hawar Islands was resolved in 2001. During the 2003 Iraq War, Qatar, Doha, was the seat of the American and British “Central Command” (headquarters). An agreement was reached in 2008 in the border conflict between Qatar and Saudi Arabia, which had long strained relations. In 2010, Qatar was awarded the contract to host the 2022 World Cup. In 2011, the country took part in the military operation against Gaddhafi Regime in Libya. Emir Hamad Ibn Chalifa Al Thani was the first head of state to visit the Gaza Strip in 2012 after Hamas came to power.
On June 24, 2013, the emir announced that he would renounce the throne in favor of Crown Prince Tamim bin Hamad bin Chalifa Al Thani (* 1980). Qatar continued to seek to strengthen its role in the region through an active foreign policy. From September 2014, it participated in attacks on the Islamic State in Syria and, from March 2015, in the intervention in Yemen, which was directed against the local Houthi movement.
Outside of Qatar, the conditions under which foreign workers were building football stadiums and infrastructure for the 2022 World Cup were widely criticized. In addition to working and living conditions, the so-called Kafala system, according to which foreign workers are only allowed to terminate their employment and leave the country with the consent of their employer, was denounced. The circumstances surrounding the awarding of the World Cup to Qatar also came under international investigations in the wake of the FIFA corruption scandal in 2015.
On June 5, 2017, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates and Egypt severed diplomatic relations with Qatar, which they accused of supporting and promoting terrorism. They also cut trade and trade with Qatar, which was also excluded from the military alliance to combat the Houthi movement in Yemen. On June 22, 2017, the four states submitted a list of measures that Qatar must take to resolve the conflict. The demands include, inter alia, the end of support for terrorists, the closure of the Al-Djazira channel, the reduction of relations with Iran and the termination of military cooperation with Turkey. Qatar rejected the claims. To defuse the crisis, Kuwait began diplomatic mediation efforts.